The whole world has experienced all types of IC (Internal Combustion) Engines which majorly run on fuels such as Diesel or Petrol. These fuels fall under the category of Non-renewable source of energy, meaning once used they cannot be replenished. The major disadvantage of using these fuels, they release CO2 (carbon dioxide), as a result of combustion and other harmful gases which are not good for the environment thus increasing global warming.Fossil CO2 emissions in India were 2,533,638,100 tons in 2016. CO2 emissions increased by 4.71% over the previous year, representing an increase by 114,000,900 tons over 2015, when CO2 emissions were 2,419,637,200 tons.
To avoid and reduce this carbon footprint approx 189 countries have joined the Paris Agreement. The agreement includes commitments from all countries to reduce their emissions and work together to adapt to the impacts of climate change and calls on countries to strengthen their commitments over time. The whole motive behind this agreement is to lower the CO2 emissions from the exhaust of cars as low as possible. In European countries, they follow a norm called Euro6 engines and in India, we follow Bharat stage 6 engines.
As we saw advancement in technology we have started using CNG (Compressed Natural Gas) -operated vehicles and we have implemented most of them in public transport over 10 years. Using CNG engines also emit CO2 and other harmful gases but at a lower rate. To avoid this, few Automobile companies have come with a solution to have zero amount of carbon footprint and how is that possible you ask, by having the invention of the Electric Car.
What are electric cars EV?
A car that is propelled by an electric motor is called an electric car. The car has rechargeable batteries which are the power input for electric motors that are connected to the wheels. There are three types of EV’S (Electric Vehicles) the Plug-in electric, Plug-in hybrid, and Hybrid electric.
Plug-in Electric: – They solely depend on electricity, meaning they only run on rechargeable batteries. Example: Mahindra e2o
Plug-in Hybrid: – These cars run on conventional Internal combustion engines be it petrol or diesel and electric motors. If in case they run out of fuel or charge they can switch between the two. Example: – Toyota Camry
Hybrid electric: – These majorly run on petrol or diesel but they also have an electric battery which is charged through regenerative braking, these let us choose between EV mode and the fuel. These cars cannot be charged they are only charged by fuel. Example: – Toyota Prius.
Can we use these cars in India?
As of now the sales of these vehicles are not that high because of the reliability of the EV vehicle? Few EVs can travel approx. 300kms in a single charge. It takes around 8-10hrs to charge from 0% to 100%. In India, we lack the infrastructure of charging stations for EV cars which is the main reason sales of EVs are low. As of 2020, we have 993 charging stations across the country.
When will we have enough electricity for charging stations?
As the latest report of 2018, we have a consumption of 909 GU (Giga units), and the required is 915 GU. The difference of 6GU is imported from Bhutan. About 66% of total electricity required is produced by burning fossil fuels (coal) and the rest about 33% is produced from renewable sources of energy such as wind energy, tidal energy, and hydroelectric plant.
Now we have a strong debate on does it makes sense to buy an electric car because the whole purpose of an electric car was to reduce carbon footprint but instead we are burning coal to provide electricity for charging stations.
According to the report published on 11th March 2018, PM says, we have an ISA (International Solar Alliance) which says by 2022 we will producing 175GW (gigawatt) by renewable sources of energy
ISA was established in 2015 as an initiative by the PM of India and President of France and the purpose was to bring together a group of nations to endorse clean energy, sustainable environment, public transport, and climate.
So India estimates to outgrow this number of charging stations and power them by using renewable sources of energy which will cause less pollution and will decrease the carbon footprint reducing global warming.
What (ISRO) INDIAN SPACE RESEARCH ORGANISATION has to offer on EV’S?
ISRO is in the process of transferring the technology of a cheaper version of space batteries developed by ISRO for the automobile industry especially for commercial use in e-mobility. Chairman of ISRO Dr.K Sivan said,” we have developed the technology to reduce the cost of space batteries to be used for the production of e-vehicle”. The process has a collaboration of ISRO and ARAI (automotive research association of India).
What are the challenges for EVs?
- Inadequate charging infrastructure
- Reliance on battery imports
- Reliance on imported components and parts
- Incentives linked to local manufacturing
- Range anxiety among consumers
- The high price of EVs currently
- Lack of options for high-performance EVs
- Inadequate electricity supply in parts of India
- Lack of quality maintenance and repair options
The solution for the above-mentioned problems has been taken into consideration, governments and automotive companies are investing more in R&D (Research and Development) to overcome these issues.
We now compare 5 Advantages and 5 Disadvantages
|YES for EV||NO for EV|
|High cost of fuels||Recharge points|
|Zero emissions||The initial investment is high|
|Low maintenance||The rise in electricity bill|
|Easy driving No lag||Range is short|
|Tax benefits||Longer time to recharge|
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